1. At 4:11:24 of Geneva time (11:11:24 of Beijing time) on August 25, 1986, Wu Weimin from Institute of High Energy Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences used a IBM-PC at Beijing Information Control Institute (No.710 Institute) to remotely log into the account of Wang Shuqin on a machine VXCRNA located in CERN of Geneva via the satellite link, and sent an email to Steinberger located in Geneva.
2. In September 1987, with the help of the research group led by Professor Werner Zorn from Karlsruhe University of Germany, Professor Wang Yunfeng and Doctor Li Chengjiong, etc., set up an email node at Institute of Computer Application (ICA) in Beijing, and successfully sent an email to Germany on September 20. The content of this email was "Across the Great Wall we can reach every corner in the world".
3. From November 9 to 11 in 1987, the Chinese delegation was invited to attend the sixth session of International Academic Networkshop held in Princeton, USA. During the meeting, National Science Foundation (NSF) welcomed the extension of BITNET and CSNET's emails to China, and delivered a welcome letter to Yang Chuquan, the Chinese representative.
4. In the beginning of 1988, CNPAC, the first X.25 packet switched network in China, covering such cities as Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenyang, Xi'an, Wuhan, Chengdu, Nanjing and Shenzhen, was set up.
5. In March 1988, the China Academic Net (CANET) project was launched with a view to connecting the computers at the numerous universities and research institutions in China with the computer network in the world.
6. In July 1988, Institute of High Energy Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences turned a VAX785 machine into a subnode of European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland via the satellite link of Austria Radio Company by adopting the X.25 protocol.
7. In December 1988, the campus network of Tsinghua University used the email software package which adopted the X400 protocol and which was introduced from University of British Columbia (UBC) in Canada by Professor Hu Daoyuan, to connect with UBC via the X.25 network, and thus started the application of emails.
8. In May 1989, China Research Network (CRN) realized the interconnection with Germany Research Network (DFN) via the X.25 experimental network (CNPAC) of the then Ministry of Post & Telecommunications. The members of CRN included: No. 15 Institute of the Ministry of Electronics and the Electronic Science Academy of the Ministry of Electronics in Beijing, No. 30 Institute of the Ministry of Electronics in Chengdu, No. 54 Institute of the Ministry of Electronics in Shijiazhuang, Fudan University and Shanghai Jiaotong University in Shanghai, and Southeast University in Nanjing. CRN provided emails that met the X.400 (MHS) standard, file transfer that met the FTAM standard, directory services that met the X.500 standard and other functions, and could communicate with Internet via the gateway of DFN in Germany.
9. In October 1989, the key discipline project for which the State Development Planning Commission utilized the loan of World Bank, i.e. Education and Scientific Research Demonstration Network in Zhongguancun District, which was also named as National Computing and Networking Facility of China ("NCFC") by World Bank, was officially approved. In November, this project was officially launched. NCFC was a high-tech information infrastructure project among the "key discipline development projects" using the loan of World Bank, and was co-invested and supported by State Development Planning Commission, Chinese Academy of Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China and State Education Commission. The project was in the charge of Chinese Academy of Sciences, and was jointly implemented by Peking University and Tsinghua University. The primary objective of setting up the project then was to build up the backbone network and three academic networks of NCFC through the cooperation among Peking University, Tsinghua University and Chinese Academy of Sciences.
10. On November 28, 1990, with the efforts of Professor Wang Yunfeng and Professor Werner Zorn, the registration of the top level domain .CN was completed, and Qian Tianbai acted as the administrative liaison officer. From then on, China had its own identity on the Internet. Because China had not realized the full function connection with the internet then, China's CN top level domain server was temporarily set up at University of Karlsruhe in Germany.
11. In March 1991, the computer network between Institute of High Energy Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) of Stanford University in the U.S. was successfully connected.
12. At the INET'92 annual conference held in Kobe, Japan in June 1992, Researcher Qian Hualin from Chinese Academy of Sciences met with the person in charge of International Network Department of National Science Foundation of the U.S., and for the first time officially discussed the issue of China's access to the Internet. However, he was told that there was political barrier for China's access to the Internet because there were many American government organs online.
13. At the end of December 1992, the campus network of Tsinghua University (TUNET) was built up and put into operation. It was the first campus network that adopted the TCP/IP system structure in China. Its backbone network successfully adopted the FDDI technology for the first time, and it was leading in China in terms of the network size, technical level and network application, etc.
14. By the end of 1992, the construction of all the academic networks of the NCFC project, i.e. academy network of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CASNET, which had connected with more than thirty institutes in Zhongguancun District and with Academy Office of Chinese Academy of Sciences in Sanlihe), campus network of Tsinghua University (TUNET) and campus network of Peking University (PUNET), had been completed.
15. On March 2, 1993, the 64KDECnet special line, where Institute of High Energy Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences hired the international satellite channel of AT & T Company to access Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) of Stanford University of the U.S., was officially put into operation. After this, with the strong support of National Natural Science Foundation of China, the persons in charge of the important projects of many disciplines were able to dial and access this special line of Institute of High Energy Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, and a few hundred scientists were able to use emails in China.
16. On March 12, 1993, Vice Premier Zhu Rongji chaired the meeting, and proposed and deployed the construction of national network of public economic information ("Golden Bridge Project" for short).
17. In April 1993, Computer Network Information Center of Chinese Academy of Sciences called together some network experts in Beijing to investigate the domain name systems in other countries, and proposed and determined the domain name system in China.
18. In June 1993, the NCFC experts made use of every chance at the INET' 93 conference to restate China's request to access the Internet, and discussed this issue with people concerned in the Internet circle. After the INET' 93 conference was over, Researcher Qian Hualin attended the meeting of CCIRN (Coordinating Committee for Intercontinental Research Networking). The meeting agenda included the issue of China's access to the Internet, and the majority of the participants of the meeting showed their support in this regard. This meeting played an important role in enabling China to eventually and really access the Internet.
19. On August 27, 1993, Premier Li Peng approved the use of 3 million U.S. dollars of premier budget reserve to support the construction of the advance works of Golden Bridge Project.
20. On December 10, 1993, the State Council approved the establishment of State Economic Informationization Joint Meeting, and Vice Premier Zou Jiahua acted as the chairman.
21. In December 1993, the construction of the backbone network of NCFC was completed, where high-speed optical cables and routers were used to interconnect the three academic networks.
22. Early in April 1994, Sino-US Science and Technology Cooperation Joint Committee Conference was held in Washington, USA. Before the conference, Hu Qiheng, Vice Director of Chinese Academy of Sciences, restated China's request to access the Internet on behalf of China to National Science Foundation (NSF), and gained recognition.
23. On April 20, 1994, NCFC's 64K international special line that accessed the Internet via Sprint, an American company, was put into operation, which meant that the global function connection with the Internet had been realized. From then on, China was officially and internationally recognized as a country that really had the access to the global function Internet. This event was rated by the press in China as one of the top ten technology news stories in China in 1994, and was listed by National Statistical Bulletin as one of the most important technology achievements in China in 1994.
24. On May 15, 1994, Institute of High Energy Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences set up the first WEB server in China, and launched the first set of web pages in China. Such web pages gave a description of the high-tech development in China and also contained a column called "Tour in China". Afterwards，the column began to provide more extensive information in both texts and pictures in such fields as news, economy, culture, commerce and trade, and was renamed as Window of China.
25. On May 21, 1994, with the assistance of Professor Qian Tianbai and University of Karlsruhe, Computer Network Information Center of Chinese Academy of Sciences completed the setting of the national top level domain (CN) server in China, and changed the history when the CN top level domain server of China had been placed in foreign countries. Qian Tianbai and Qian Hualin acted as the administrative liaison officer and technical liaison officer respectively for the CN domain name of China.
26. In May 1994, National Crime Research Center for Intelligent Computing Systems put Shuguang BBS into operation. This was the first BBS in Chinese Mainland.
27. On June 8, 1994, General Office of the State Council sent a specific telegram titled Notice of General Office of the State Council Concerning Issues of "Three-Golden Projects" (G B F M D <1994> No.18) to each ministry and commission and each provincial and municipal government. The "Three-Golden Projects" referred to the Golden Bridge, Golden Gateway and Golden Card projects. From then on, the construction of the advance works of Golden Bridge Project was carried in an all-round way.
28. On June 28, 1994, with the strong support of Tokyo University of Science， Beijing University of Chemical Technology put into operation the trial-run special line that connected with the Internet.
29. Early in July 1994, the experimental network of China Education and Research Network constructed by six colleges and universities, including Tsinghua University, was put into operation. Connecting five cities, i.e. Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Nanjing and Xi' an, this network adopted the IP/x.25 technology and, interconnected with the Internet via the international gateway of NCFC. It was a network that adopted the TCP/IP protocol.
30. In August 1994, China Education and Research Network (CERNET), which was invested by State Development Planning Commission and administrated by State Education Commission, was officially approved. The objective of this project was to realize the inter-campus computer networking and the information and resource sharing, to interconnect with international academic computer networks and to establish the network management system with complete functions by utilizing advanced and practical computer technology and network communication technology.
31. In September 1994, General Administration of Telecommunications of the Ministry of Post & Telecommunications signed the Sino-U.S. agreement with the Commerce Department of the U.S. on the Internet. The agreement prescribed that General Administration of Telecommunications would put into operation two 64K special lines via Sprint Company (one in Beijing, and the other in Shanghai). The construction of CHINANET began.
32. In November 1994, the annual conference of Asia Pacific Network Working Group (APNG) sponsored by Management Committee of NCFC and co-sponsored by Chinese Academy of Sciences, Peking University and Tsinghua University was held at Tsinghua University. This was the first annual conference in the Asia Pacific region held by the Internet circle.
33. In January 1995, the 64K special lines, which connected to the U.S. and were set up in Beijing and Shanghai respectively by General Administration of Telecommunications of the Ministry of Post & Telecommunications, were put into operation, and the Internet access services began to be offered to the public via the telephone network, DDN special line and X.25 network.
34. In January 1995, the magazine China Scholars Abroad administrated and sponsored by State Education Commission was connected to the Internet via China Education and Research Network (CERNET) to provide those who studied abroad with news and information in a timely manner, and became the first Chinese E-journal in China.
35. In March 1995, Chinese Academy of Sciences completed the remote connection with its branches in Shanghai, Hefei, Wuhan and Nanjing (using IP/X.25 technology), and took the first step of spreading the Internet to the entire country.
36. In March 1995, Professor Li Xing from Tsinghua University was elected for the first time the member of the Executive Committee of Asia Pacific Network Information Center (APNIC).
37. In April 1995, Chinese Academy of Sciences launched the networking project for units outside Beijing ("One Hundred Unit Networking" Project). The objective of this project was to expand the network to 24 cities nationwide based on the networking of more than 30 institutes in Beijing, and to realize the computer interconnection and the Internet access among the academic institutions in China. Based on this, the network kept expanding, gradually connected some scientific research institutes besides Chinese Academy of Sciences, became a nationwide network that served the technology users, technology administration authorities and government departments related to technologies, and was renamed as "CSTNet".
38. In May 1995, China Telecom began to make preparations for the construction of the nationwide backbone network for CHINANET.
39. In July 1995, the first 128K international special line of China Education and Research Network (CERNET) that connected to the U.S. was put into operation, and the DDN channel of the CERNET backbone network that connected to Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Nanjing, Shenyang, Xi'an, Wuhan and Chengdu was put into operation simultaneously. The speed at that time was 64Kbps, and the interconnection with NCFC was realized.
40. In August 1995, the Golden Bridge Project was preliminarily completed. Networking (satellite network) was realized in 24 provinces and cities, and interconnection with the international network was realized.
41. In December 1995, the One Hundred Unit Networking Project of Chinese Academy of Sciences was completed.
42. In December 1995, the Demonstration Project of China Education and Research Network (CERNET) was completed. This project was designed and constructed by China independently.
43. On January 13, 1996, Information Work Leading Group of the State Council and its office were set up, and Vice Premier Zou Jiahua acted as the group leader. The former Office of State Economic Informationization Joint Meeting was renamed as Office of Information Work Leading Group of the State Council.
44. In January 1996, the nationwide backbone network of CHINANET was completed and officially put into operation, and the nationwide internet began to provide services.
45. On February 1, 1996, the State Council issued the No. 195 Decree: Interim Regulations of the People's Republic of China on the Management of International Networking of Computer Information.
46. On February 27, 1996, China International Electronic Commerce Center of the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation was officially established.
47. In March 1996, the uniform transmission standard for Chinese characters, which was submitted by Tsinghua University and which was adapted to the Chinese character codes in different countries and regions, was adopted by IETF as RFC1922, becoming the first submitted protocol that was recognized as the RFC file in China.
48. On April 9, 1996, the Ministry of Post & Telecommunications issued Administrative Measures of CHINANET on International Networking which was implemented from the date of issuance.
49. On June 3, 1996, the Ministry of Electronics Industry issued Relevant Decisions on Management of International Networking of Computer Information Networks, renamed "Gbnet" as "China Golden Bridge NET". It authorized Jitong Communication Co., Ltd to act as the interconnected unit of China Golden Bridge NET, to manage the networking of Internet subscribers and users and to provide them with services.
50. In July 1996, the State Council Informatization Office organized a number of experts from relevant departments to conduct an investigation over the technology facilities and management conditions of the four major networks and about 30 ISP, which had facilitated the standardization of the network management.
51. On September 6, 1996, the 256K special line of CHINAGBN that accessed the U.S. was officially put into operation. CHINAGBN declared that it began to provide the Internet services, that is, the access for special line group users and the single-point access for individual users.
52. On September 22, 1996, Shanghai Hotline, the first metropolitan area network in China, was officially put into trial operation, indicating that the public information network in Shanghai which acted as the main work of the information port of Shanghai had been officially built up.
53. In September 1996, State Development Planning Commission officially approved the first-stage construction of the Golden Bridge Project.
54. On November 15, 1996, Sparkice Company opened Sparkice Network Coffee Bar beside Beijing Capital Gymnasium. This was the first coffee bar with network in China.
55. In November 1996, CERNET opened the 2M international line that connected to the U.S.. In the same month，during the German President's visit to China, CERNET- DFN, a Sino-Germany academic network interconnection line, was put into operation, which meant that the first Internet connection between the Chinese Mainland and Europe was established.
56. In December 1996, CNINFO (169 net) was launched in an all-round way, and Gnet, Sichuan Tianfu Hotline and Shanghai Hotline were officially put into operation as the first websites.
57. On January 1, 1997, people.com.cn sponsored by People's Daily joined the Internet. This was the first key news propaganda website of the central government opened in China.
58. In February 1997, IHW Nationwide Network was put into operation, covered Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Fuzhou, Shenzhen, Xi'an, Shenyang and Harbin within 3 months, and became the earliest and largest privately operated ISP and ICP in China.
59. From April 18 to 21, 1997, the national informatization working conference was held in Shenzhen City. In the meeting attendees determined the definition, elements, guidelines, working principles, objectives and primary missions of the national informatization system, adopted "The Ninth Five-year Plan for National Informatization and Perspective in 2000", determined to include China's Internet into the national information infrastructure construction, and proposed the establishment of the national Internet information center and Internet exchange center.
60. On May 20, 1997, the State Council issued Decision of the State Council on Amendment of Interim Regulations of the People's Republic of China on the Management of International Networking of Computer Information to amend Interim Regulations of the People's Republic of China on the Management of International Networking of Computer Information.
61. On May 30, 1997, the Information Work Leading Group Office of the State Council issued Interim Provisions for Administration of Domain Name Registration of Internet in China, authorized Chinese Academy of Sciences to set up and manage China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC), and authorized Network Center of China Education and Research Network to sign a contract with CNNIC and to manage the second-level domain .edu.cn.
62. On May 31, 1997, Beijing University of Chemical Technology cut off the satellite special line and connected to China Education and Research Network (CERNET).
63. On June 3, 1997, under the authorization of the Information Work Leading Group Office of the State Council, Chinese Academy of Sciences set up China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) at Computer Network Information Center of Chinese Academy of Sciences to perform the duty of National Internet Information Center. On the same day，the Information Work Leading Group Office of the State Council declared the establishment of Working Committee of China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC).
64. In October 1997, CHINANET realized the interconnection and intercommunication with the other three networks in China, i.e. CSTNET, CERNET and CHINAGBN.
65. In November 1997, China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) issued the first Statistical Report on Internet Development in China: By October 31, 1997, there were 299,000 computers in total which had access to the Internet in China. There were 620,000 Internet subscribers, 4066 domain names registered under CN, and about 1500 WWW websites. The international bandwidth was 25.408M.
66. On December 30, 1997, the Ministry of Public Security issued Measures for Security Protection Administration of the International Networking of Computer Information Networks which was approved by the State Council.
67. On March 6, 1998, the Information Work Leading Group Office of the State Council issued Implementation Rules for Interim Regulations of the People's Republic of China on the Management of International Networking of Computer Information which was put in force from the date of issuance.
68. In March 1998, the First Session of the Ninth National People's Congress approved the establishment of the Ministry of Information Industry which was in charge of the manufacturing industry for electronic information products, communication industry and software industry to promote informatization of the national economy and social services.
69. In May 1998, the State approved the construction of CGWNET.
70. In June 1998, CERNET officially joined 6BONE, the experimental network for the next-generation IP protocol (IPv6).
71. In July 1998, Product Evaluation and Attestation Center for Internet Security in China was accepted by the Information Work Leading Group Office of the State Council, and began its pilot running.
72. In July 1998, the second-stage works of the backbone network project of CHINANET began. The second-stage works would expand the backbone bandwidth among the eight major sections to 155M, and replace the node routers of the eight major sections with the kilomegabit routers.
73. In August 1998, the Ministry of Public Security officially set up Public Information Network Security Monitoring Bureau which was responsible for maintaining the computer network security, cracking down online crime, supervising and managing the security protection for the computer information systems.
74. On January 22, 1999, Launching Conference for Government Online Project was jointly held in Beijing by more than forty information administration departments from a number of ministries and commissions (offices and bureaus), with China Telecom and State Economic and Trade Commission taking the lead. The conference proposed the launch of the Government Online Project, and the home site www.gov.cn was put into trial operation.
75. In January 1999, China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) issued the third Statistical Report on Internet Development in China: By December 31, 1998, there were 747,000 computers in total which had access to the Internet in China. There were 2,100,000 Internet subscribers, 18396 domain names registered under CN, and about 5300 WWW websites. The international bandwidth was 143M256K.
76. In January 1999, the satellite backbone network of China Education and Research Network (CERNET) was put into full operation, which had greatly improved the running speed of the network. In the same month，CSTNET put into operation two sets of satellite systems to completely replace IP/X.25, and used the high-speed satellite channel to connect with more than 40 cities nationwide.
77. On February 3, 1999, the security certification system for commercial electronic information of the "national science and technology key project" of the ninth Five-Year plan undertaken by China International Electronic Commerce Center passed the scientific and technological achievement appraisal of the State Encryption Management Commission of the Ministry of Science and Technology. It also obtained the sales permit for information security products granted by relevant administrative authority, became the first CA security certification system for e-business in China which was developed independently and had the independent copyright, and had been successfully applied to the management system for textile quota permits in China.
78. In February 1999, China Information Technology Security Evaluation Center (CNISTEC) began its official operation.
79. On April 15, 1999, 23 influential network media in China got together for the first time to discuss the development of network media in China, and adopted Convention of Chinese Press on Network Media in principle to call for the attention of the society and the protection of the online information property.
80. In May 1999, Network Engineering Research Center of Tsinghua University set up CCERT (CERNET Computer Emergency Response Team), the first emergency response organization for security incidents in China.
81. On July 12, 1999, China. com launched its initial public offer on NASDAQ. This was the first concept stock of a Chinese network company listed on NASDAQ in America.
82. In August 1999, more than two hundred colleges and universities from six provinces and cities used the "Enrollment System for Colleges and Universities Nationwide" on CERNET for the first time for student recruitment, and successfully recruited students online for colleges and universities.
83. On September 6, 1999, E-Commerce Expo was held in Beijing. The expo was sponsored by the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation and the Ministry of Information Industry, and was the first e-business application expo held by the Chinese government, as well as the large-scale seminar on the e-business technology and application achievements launched by China for the first time.
84. In September 1999, China Merchants Bank took the lead to provide the “All in One Net” online banking service in an all-round way in China, established the online banking service system with the online corporate banking, online individual banking, online payment, online securities and online shops as the core, acted as the first bank to offer the online individual banking services in China with the approval of the People's Bank of China, and became the first commercial bank that had realized the "online banking" interconnected nationwide in China.
85. In October 1999, Professor Wu Jianping from Tsinghua University was elected the member of Address Committee of Address Supporting Organization (ASO) of Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN).
86. On November 2, 1999, Chen Yin, deputy director of Telecommunication Administration Bureau of the Ministry of Information Industry, attended the ICANN Governmental Advisory Committee conference on behalf of China.
87. On December 23, 1999, the Information Work Leading Group of the State Council was established, and Vice Premier Wu Bangguo acted as the group leader. Meanwhile, National Informatization Office was renamed as National Informatization Promotion Office.
88. On January 1, 2000, Administration Provisions on the Maintenance of Secrets in the International Networking of Computer Information Systems issued by State Secrets Bureau began to be put in force.
89. On January 17, 2000, the Ministry of Information Industry officially approved the establishment of China International Economy and Trade Net (CIETnet) by China International Electronic Commerce Center.
90. On January 18, 2000, China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) issued the fifth Statistical Report on Internet Development in China: By December 31, 1999, there were 3,500,000 computers in total which had access to the Internet in China. There were about 8,900,000 Internet subscribers, 48695 domain names registered under CN, and about 15153 WWW websites. The international bandwidth was 351M.
91. On January 18, 2000, China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) launched the pilot system for Chinese domain names with the approval of the Ministry of Information Industry.
92. On March 30, 2000, the country-level Internet exchange center was put into operation in Beijing, which increased the internetworking bandwidth of less than 10 MBPS to 100 MBPS for the major internetworks in China, speeding up the access speed.
93. On March 30, 2000, China Securities Regulatory Commission issued Interim Provisions for the Administration of Online Securities Entrustment.
94. On May 17, 2000, CMNET was put into operation. On the same day，China Mobile officially launched the "GoTone WAP (wireless application protocol) " service.
95. On May 20, 2000, Chinese Domain Name Consortium (CDNC) was established in Beijing to coordinate and standardize the Chinese domain names in a nongovernmental way.
96. On June 21, 2000, China Electronic Commerce Association was officially established. The association aimed at strengthening the exchange and cooperation between China and other countries in the world in e-business, facilitating the application and development of e-business in China, and facilitating the overall economic development in China.
97. On July 1, 2000, with the authorization by the State Council, State Development Planning Commission specified the website http://www.chinabidding.gov.cn as the only network medium to release the governmental bidding announcement.
98. On July 7, 2000, the Enterprise Online Project, which was jointly sponsored by China Telecommunications Corporation and Economic Information Center of State Economic and Trade Commission and under the guidance of State Economic and Trade Commission and the Ministry of Information Industry, was officially launched.
99. On July 18, 2000, Researcher Qian Hualin from Computer Network Information Center of Chinese Academy of Sciences was elected Council Chairman of Asia Pacific Top Level Domain Association (APTLD) by a unanimous vote.
100.On July 19, 2000, UNINET of China Unicom was officially put into operation.
101.In July 2000, Doctor Gao Lulin, former director of State Intellectual Property Office, participated in the election for ICANN council members, and was nominated on August 1. However, the repeated errors of the ICANN database had prevented the Chinese netizens from applying for voting, which led to Doctor Gao's failure in the election.
102.On August 21, 2000, the 16th World Computer Congress was ceremoniously held at Beijing International Convention Center. President Jiang Zemin wrote an inscription for the congress and delivered an important speech at the opening ceremony. He advocated the formulation of the Internet convention in order to jointly strengthen the information security management and to give full play to the positive role of the Internet.
103.On September 25, 2000, the State Council issued Regulation on Telecommunications of the People's Republic of China. This was the first comprehensive regulation in China that governed the telecommunication industry, indicating that the development of the telecommunication industry in China began to follow a legal track. On the same day，the State Council announced the implementation of Regulation on Internet Information Service of the People's Republic of China.
104.In September 2000, Tsinghua University built up the first new-generation Internet exchange center DRAGONTAP in China. Interconnection with the international new-generation academic networks such as Abilene, vBNS, CA*net3 was realized by a 10Mbps line that connected to the new-generation Internet exchange center STARTAP located in Chicago and a 10Mbps line that connected to the APAN exchange center located in Tokyo via DRAGONTAP，CERNET, CSTNET and NSFCNET.
105.In September 2000, CERNIC, the information service center of CERNET, took the lead in providing the IPv6 address assignment services.
106.On October 11, 2000, the Fifth Plenary Session of the 15th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China made critical decisions concerning the informatization construction. Suggestions of the CPC Central Committee on Formulating the Tenth Five-year Plan for National Economy and Social Development, which was deliberated on and adopted, had specifically pointed out: "Giving great impetus to informatization of the national economy and the society is a strategic move to cover the entire modernization construction. Informatization should be utilized to drive industrialization, and late-mover advantages should be brought into play to realize great-leap-forward development. "
107.On November 1, 2000, China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) issued Administrative Regulations on Registration of Chinese Domain Names (Trial) and Dispute Resolution for Chinese Domain Names (Trial), and entrusted China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission to set up the dispute resolution organization for Chinese domain names.
108.On November 6, 2000, the State Council Information Office and the Ministry of Information Industry issued Tentative Provisions on the Administration of Engagement by Internet Sites in the Business of News Publication.
109.On November 6, 2000, the Ministry of Information Industry issued Provisions on Administration of Internet Electronic Messaging Services.
110.On November 7, 2000, the Ministry of Information Industry issued Notice on Administration of Chinese Domain Names of the Internet to standardize the registration service and management for the Chinese domain names in China, and to specifically authorize CNNIC to act as the registry of Chinese domain names.
111.On November 7, 2000, the registration system for Chinese domain names of China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) was upgraded in an all-round way, and began to offer the Chinese domain name services with such suffixes as ".CN", ".中国", ".公司" and ".网络".
112.On November 10, 2000, China Mobile launched the Monternet Plan to create an open, cooperative and win-win industrial value chain.
113.On December 7, 2000, the Network Civilization Project, which was jointly sponsored by the Ministry of Culture, the Central Committee of the Communist Young League, the State Administration of Radio Film and Television, All-China Students Federation, National Informatization Promotion Office, Guangming Daily, China Telecom and China Mobile, was officially launched in Beijing. The theme of this project was "civilized surfing, civilized networking, civilized network".
114.On December 12, 2000, such websites as people.com.cn, xinhuanet, china.com.cn, CCTV com, CRI Online, China Daily and China Youth International were approved by the State Council Information Office to publish news, becoming the first key news websites that had obtained the permit to publish news.
115.On December 28, 2000, the nineteenth session of the Standing Committee of the Ninth People's Congress voted through Decision of the Standing Committee of the People's Congress on Safeguarding the Internet Security.
116.On January 1, 2001, the internet-based School Link project entered the official implementation phase.
117.On January 11, 2001, State Drug Administration issued Tentative Provisions on Administration of Internet-based Pharmaceutical Information Services which came into force from February 1, 2001.
118.On January 17, 2001, China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) issued the seventh Statistical Report on Internet Development in China: By December 31, 2000, there were about 8,920,000 computers in total which had access to the Internet in China. There were about 22,500,000 Internet subscribers, 122099 domain names registered under CN, and about 265405 WWW websites. The international bandwidth was 2799M.
119.Early in February 2001, China Telecom began to provide the internet-based international roaming service.
120.On March 2, 2001, Researcher Qian Hualin and Professor Li Xing from Tsinghua University were elected members of the new Executive Committee of APNIC.
121.On April 3, 2001, the Ministry of Information Industry, the Ministry of Public Security, the Ministry of Culture and State Administration for Industry & Commerce of the People's Republic of China jointly issued Measures on the Administration of Business Sites of Internet Access Services which came into force from the date of issuance.
122.On April 13, 2001, the Ministry of Information Industry, the Ministry of Public Security, the Ministry of Culture and State Administration for Industry & Commerce of the People's Republic of China deployed and carried out the special-purpose rectifications against "Internet bars".
123.In April, 2001, Professor Li Xing from Tsinghua University was elected the new chairman of APNG in the chairman election for the new Executive Committee of APNG.
124.On May 25, 2001, Internet Society of China was founded. Under the guidance of the Ministry of Information Industry and with the approval of the Ministry of Civil Affairs, it was jointly sponsored by more than 70 Internet practitioners in China, including the network operators, service providers, equipment manufacturers, systems integrators, scientific research and education institutions.
125.In May 2001, China Information Technology Security Evaluation Center was founded with the approval of State Commission Office for Public Sector Reform. It was responsible for conducting the national evaluation on the information security products, information system security, information security services and information security professionals.
126.On June 1, 2001, the Port Electronic Enforcement System, which was jointly developed by 12 relevant ministries and commissions with General Administration of Customs taking the lead, and which was called "Electronic Port", was put into full operation in each port of China after its pilot operation in the import-export ports in Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and Guangzhou.
127.In July 2001, the important joint project of National Natural Science Fund NSFCNET (1999-2000), which was jointly undertaken by Tsinghua University, Computer Network Information Center of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Peking University, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, etc., passed the appraisal and acceptance and became the first next-generation internet-based academic research network in China. The research focused on the fiber optic transmission system of the density wave division multiplexing, high-speed computer internetwork，important application research and demonstration system in the high-speed network environment.
128.On July 9, 2001, the People's Bank of China issued Tentative Procedures on Administration of Online Banking Services.
129.On July 11, 2001, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China held the lecture on the rule of law at Huairen Hall in Zhongnanhai, which focused on the use of legal means to guarantee and facilitate the healthy development of information network. Jiang Zemin, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, chaired the lecture and delivered an important speech. Jiang Zemin pointed out that we should seize opportunities, speed up the development of information technologies and network technologies in China, and actively apply them in such aspects as economy, society, technology, national defense, education, culture and law. He also said that we should not only actively facilitate the development of the information network infrastructure, but also put efforts to strengthen management in order to develop the information network rapidly and healthily.
130.On July 29, 2001, the Ministry of Information Industry announced the indicator composition plan for national informatization as the basis and means for the quantitative analysis and management of the national and regional informatization level.
131.In July 2001, Informatization-specific Planning in the Tenth Five-year Plan of the National Economy and Social Development was formulated.
132.On August 23, National Information Work Leading Group was rebuilt, and Premier Zhu Rongji, member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, acted as the group leader.
133.In August 2001, National Computer Network and Information Center set up “China Emergency Treatment and Coordination Center for Computer Network" (CNCERT/CC).
134.On September 7, 2001, Outline of the Tenth Five-year Plan of IT Industry was officially issued. This was the first sector planning after the State determined the important strategy on informatization.
135.On September 7, 2001, National Informatization Promotion Office issued Survey Report on Quantity of Information Resources of Internetworks in China. This survey was jointly carried out by China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC), China Center of Information Industry Development and Nanjing Research Base of National Information Resource Management under the authorization of National Informatization Promotion Office. This was China's first survey on the network information resources. The result showed that by April 30, 2001, there were totally 692,490 domain names of internetworks, 238,249 websites, 159,460,056 web pages and 45,598 online databases in China.
136.On September 20, 2001, the Ministry of Information Industry issued Interconnected Settlement Method for Backbone Networks of the Internet.
137.On September 29, 2001, the Ministry of Information Industry issued Temporary Provisions on Interconnection Services among Backbone Networks of the Internet.
138.On October 8, 2001, the Ministry of Information Industry issued Temporary Provisions on Administration of Interconnection among Backbone Networks of the Internet.
139.On October 27, 2001, the Right to Network Dissemination was officially included in the revised Copyright Law of the People's Republic of China which was approved and adopted by the twenty-fourth session of the Standing Committee of the Ninth People's Congress. Relevant new provisions have provided laws for the copyright protection in the network transmission environment.
140.On November 4, 2001, China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) offered the Internet Keyword service.
141.On November 20, 2001, Demonstration Project of Electronic Government Affair Application in China passed the evaluation, indicating that China had taken an important step towards "electronic government".
142.On November 22, 2001, the Central Committee of the Communist Young League, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Culture, the State Council Information Office, All-China Youth Federation, All-China Students Federation, China Young Pioneers Working Commission, and China Youth Association for Internet Development officially issued All-China Youth Network Civilization Convention. From then on, hundreds of millions youngsters and teenagers nationwide had their own ethical code of conduct.
143.In November, 2001, Academician Hu Qiheng, Vice-chairman of China Association for Science and Technology and Chairman of CNNIC Working Committee, was appointed as the member of the Multilingual Domain Name Committee of ICANN.
144.On December 3, 2001, China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) issued Survey Report on Internet Bandwidth in China for the first time. By September 30, 2001, the international bandwidth of China reached 5724M.
145.On December 20, 2001, the Family Online Project, which was jointly sponsored by the Ministry of Information Industry, All-China Women's Federation, the Central Committee of the Communist Young League, the Ministry of Science and Technology and the Ministry of Culture, was officially launched.
146.On December 20, 2001, Telecommunication Administration Bureau of the Ministry of Information Industry issued Settlement Regulations of National Internet Exchange Center.
147.On December 20, 2001, the ten major internetworks in China signed the interconnection and intercommunication agreement, which meant that from then on, the Chinese netizens might surf the Internet trans-regionally in a more convenient and smoother way.
148.On December 22, 2001, China Unicom declared in Beijing that the first-stage construction of the CDMA mobile communication network of China Unicom had been completed as scheduled, and that such network would be put into operation in 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central authority nationwide on December 31, 2001. The building-up of the CDMA network of China Unicom indicated that the development of the mobile communication technology of China had entered a new field.
149.On December 25, 2001, Zhu Rongji, member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, Premier of the State Council and leader of National Information Work Leading Group, chaired and held the first meeting of National Information Work Leading Group. He pointed out that the informatization construction in China should be solidly put forward by attaching importance to it, strengthening the planning and coordination of it, adhering to the market orientation and avoiding duplicate construction.
150.At the end of December 2001, the construction project of the high-speed backbone network of China Education and Research Network (CERNET) (1999-2001) passed the national acceptance check. The project was an important part of the Modern Remote Education Project in the "Action Plan for Educational Vitalization Facing the 21st Century", and was the important foundation to construct a life-long education system in China. The project had built up a high-speed transmission network based on DWDM / SDH, with a capacity of up to 40Gbps. The backbone network had a transmission rate of up to 2.5Gbps, and connected to 35 provincial capitals and key cities, except for Lhasa, at a rate of 155Mbps. About one hundred colleges and universities accessed the network at 100 ~ 1000Mbps. On this basis, the Ministry of Education had approved 47 (which was expanded to 67 later) colleges and universities to set up the network education faculties, and approved 19 online cooperation research centers to carry out remote education and collaborative research on CERNET.
151.On December 31, 2001, the country-level Internet exchange centers in Shanghai and Guangdong were put into official operation.
152.On January 15, 2002, China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) issued the ninth Statistical Report on Internet Development in China: By December 31, 2001, there were about 12,540,000 computers in total which had access to the Internet in China. There were about 33,700,000 Internet subscribers, 127,319 domain names registered under CN, and about 277,100 WWW websites. The international bandwidth was 7597.5M.
153.On March 14, 2002, the ninth ministry affairs meeting of the Ministry of Information Industry approved and adopted Measures for the Administration of Internet Domain Names of China which was put in force from September 30, 2002.
154.On March 26, 2002, Internet Society of China issued Self-regulation Convention for Internet Industry in China in Beijing, which provided guarantee for the establishment of the self-regulation mechanism for the Internet industry in China.
155.On May 17, 2002, the Ministry of Culture issued Notice on Strengthening Management of Network Culture Market.
156.On May 17, 2002, China Telecom launched the VNET plan in Guangzhou, indicating that ISP and ICP began to jointly build up a broadband Internet industry chain.
157.On May 17, 2002, China Mobile took the lead in officially launching the GPRS service nationwide. On November 18, China Mobile and AT&T Wireless jointly declared that their GPRS international roaming service was officially put into operation.
158.On June 27, 2002, General Administration of Press and Publication and the Ministry of Information Industry jointly formulated Tentative Provisions on Administration of Internet Publishing which would be officially implemented from August 1, 2002.
159.On July 3, 2002, the second meeting of National Information Work Leading Group was held. The meeting approved and adopted Informatization-specific Plan in the Tenth Five-year Plan of the National Economy and Social Development, Instructions on Construction of Electronic Government Affairs in China, and Action Framework for Revitalizing the Software Industry.
160.On September 25, 2002, China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) issued Implementing Rules on Registration of Domain Names, Dispute Resolution for Domain Names, Certification Method for Registration Authorities of Domain Names, and other files.
161.On September 29, 2002, Premier Zhu Rongji signed and issued No. 363 Decree of the State Council of the People's Republic of China to promulgate Measures on the Administration of Business Sites of Internet Access Services which was put in force from November 15, 2002.
162.On September 30, 2002, Measures for the Administration of Internet Domain Names of China came into force.
163.From October 26 to 31, 2002, Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), a global registry of Internet addresses and domain names, held a conference in Shanghai. This was the first time that the ICANN conference was held in China. This conference was jointly hosted by China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) and Internet Society of China (ISC).
164.On November 1, 2002, jointly sponsored by Internet Society of China, 263 Network Group and Sina.com, Anti-Spam Coordination Team of Internet Society of China was founded in Beijing. This action aimed at protecting the legitimate interests of the Internet users and electronic mail service providers in China, ensuring the fair use of the Internet resources and standardizing the service order of electronic mails in China.
165.On November 22, 2002, the Ministry of Information Industry promulgated Announcement on the Domain Name System of the Internet in China.
166.On November 25, 2002, the First China Internet Conference and Exhibition, which was approved by the Ministry of Information Industry and sponsored by Internet Society of China, was held in Shanghai. The fundamental purpose of this meeting was to discuss how to make innovations in the application of China's Internet, and to guide the further development of the Internet in China. The theme of this conference was "Application of the Internet--Call for Innovations".
167.On December 16, 2002, China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC), as the domain name registry, no longer accepted users' application for domain name registration. The domain name service provider, instead, would provide such service. This was another important change in the service system for domain name registration since the CN domain name was established in 1990 in China.
168.On January 16, 2003, China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) issued the eleventh Statistical Report on Internet Development in China: By December 31, 2002, there were about 20,830,000 computers in total which had access to the Internet in China. There were about 59,100,000 Internet subscribers, 179,000 domain names registered under CN, and about 371,000 WWW websites. The international bandwidth was 9380M.
169.On March 17, 2003, registration of second-level domains under the national top level domain was officially approved in China, and users might register second-level domains directly under the top level domain CN. This was a significant change since the domain name system was established in China.
170.On March 20, 2003, Sun Zhigang, a young man from Hubei Province, was detained and beaten to death in Guangzhou. After this incident was first exposed by the local newspaper, the major network media in China intervened actively, and wide attention was drawn from the society. The Internet brought into play its powerful role in media supervision and urged relevant departments to solve this case. On June 20, the State Council issued Administrative Regulations on Helping Tramps and Beggars in Cities, and annulled Regulations on Sheltering and Sending Back Tramps and Beggars in Cities simultaneously. The influence and position of network media increased gradually.
171.On April 9, 2003, China Netcom Group announced the split of CHINANET between China Netcom Group and China Telecom Group in Beijing, and ceremoniously launched its new service "Broadband in China CHINA169".
172.On May 10, 2003, the Ministry of Culture issued Interim Provisions on the Administration of Internet Culture which was put in force from July 1,, 2003.
173.On June 5, 2003, the Ministry of Culture issued Announcement on Examination and Approval of Chain Operation Units That Provide Internet Services Nationwide, and approved 10 units to set up the nationwide chain operation business locations that provide the Internet services.
174.On June 26, 2003, Qian Hualin, an expert in computer network and data communication in China and researcher from Chinese Academy of Sciences, was elected council member of ICANN, with a term of office of three years. This was the first time for a Chinese expert to have entered the management team of the top decision-making organization for global Internet address and domain name resources.
175.On July 9, 2003, the Information Work Leading Group Office of the State Council issued 2002 Survey Report on Quantity of Information Resources of Internetworks in China in Beijing. By December 31, 2002, there were totally 940,300 domain names, 371,600 websites, 157,000,000 web pages and 82,900 online databases in China.
176.On August 8, 2003, the first Report on the Internet Development in China jointly prepared by Internet Society of China and China Internet Network Information Center was officially published in Beijing. It was the first large-scale comprehensive document that reflected the Internet development in China completely since the Internet entered China in 1994.
177.On August 8, 2003, Anti-Spam Coordination Team of Internet Society of China publicized "List of Spam Mail Servers" (First Batch) to the public, which drew much attention from all circles of the society.
178.On August 11, 2003, a computer worm virus called "WORM_MSBlast.A" was transmitted from foreign countries into China, and affected the users in the vast majority of regions in China within just several days. The virus renewed the historical virus record, and became one of the most influential viruses in the history of virus. Relevant national authorities took effective measures to control the spread of the virus, and media made relevant reports on this.
179.In August 2003, Li Hongchen, an online game player, filed a law suit with Chaoyang District People's Court against Beijing Arctic Ice Technology Development Co., Ltd, the operator of the online game Red Moon. This was the first case in China where a game player filed a law suit against a game company due to the loss of virtual equipment. This case had legally aroused the issue of defining the virtual property online.
180.In August, 2003, the State Council officially approved the launch of the project of China Next Generation Internet（CNGI）. CNGI was the commencement project in the implementation of the next-generation Internet development strategy in China. It was in the charge of National Development and Reform Commission, coordinated technically by Chinese Academy of Engineering, and jointly led by National Development and Reform Commission, Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Information Industry, Information Work Leading Group Office of the State Council, Ministry of Education, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Engineering and National Natural Science Foundation of China.
181.On September 27, 2003, Asia-Pacific Internet Research Alliance (APIRA) was founded in Beijing. This organization was initiated by China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC), and its first members included Korean Internet Information Center (KRNIC), City University of Hong Kong, University of Macau and Taiwan Network Information Center (TWNIC).
182.On November 18, 2003, State Sport General Administration officially approved e-sports to be the 99th official sports in China.
183.On November 20, 2003, China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) issued Survey Report on Hot Spots of Internet in China. This survey report covered two parts: short messages of websites and broadband. This was CNNIC or even the State's first time to have issued the survey report on relevant contents. The report showed that the users of short message services of websites used websites to send 10.9 short messages on average every week, and that 70.8% of the broadband users accessed the Internet via ADSL.
184.On December 6-7, 2003, the second China Internet Conference was held in Beijing, with the theme of "Perspective Internet towards an E Era". Comrade Huang Ju, member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and Vice Premier of the State Council, sent his congratulations to the conference as follows: "I hereby offer my congratulations on the holding of China Internet Conference and express my cordial greetings to the experts, scholars, and domestic and foreign guests who attend this conference! In recent years, remarkable achievements have been made in the Internet development in China with the joint efforts of all parties concerned, and the network size and number of subscribers have ranked among the top in the world. The extensive use of the information network has effectively facilitated the development in society, economy, culture and other aspects. Since its founding, Internet Society of China has given full play to its role of the bridge and link, strengthened information communication and exchange, implemented self-regulation conventions, and made positive contributions to the governmental decision-making and enterprise development. Hopefully, all parties concerned in the Internet industry in China will conscientiously implement the spirit of the Sixteenth National Congress of the CPC and the Third Plenary Session of the Sixteenth Central Committee of the CPC, make persistent efforts, explorations and innovations, strengthen exchange and cooperation in terms of the Internet technologies, strengthen self-regulation and keep driving the healthy development of the Internet cause in China. I wish this conference a complete success! "